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The role of endocytic trafficking in antigen T Cell Receptor activation

Antigen T cell receptors (TCR) recognize antigenic peptides displayed by the major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) and play a critical role in T cell activation. The levels of TCR complexes at the cell surface, where signaling is initiated, depend on the balance between TCR synthesis, recycling and degradation. Cell surface TCR interaction with pMHC leads to receptor clustering and formation of a tight T cell-APC contact, the immune synapse, from which the activated TCR is internalized...

mRNA vaccination of naive and COVID-19-recovered individuals elicits potent memory B cells that recognize SARS-CoV-2 variants

In addition to serum immunoglobulins, memory B cell (MBC) generation against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is another layer of immune protection, but the quality of MBC responses in naive and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-recovered individuals after vaccination remains ill defined. We studied longitudinal cohorts of naive and disease-recovered individuals for up to 2 months after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination. We assessed the quality of the memory response by analysis of antibody repertoires, affinity, and neutralization against variants of concern (VOCs) using unbiased cultures of 2,452 MBCs...

A subset of Kupffer cells regulates metabolism through the expression of CD36

Tissue macrophages are immune cells whose phenotypes and functions are dictated by origin and niches. However, tissues are complex environments, and macrophage heterogeneity within the same organ has been overlooked so far. Here, we used high-dimensional approaches to characterize macrophage populations in the murine liver. We identified two distinct populations among embryonically derived Kupffer cells (KCs) sharing a core signature while differentially expressing numerous genes and proteins: a major CD206loESAM- population (KC1) and a minor CD206hiESAM+ population (KC2)...

Allosteric inhibition of HER2 by Moesin-mimicking compounds targets HER2-positive cancers and brain metastases

Therapies targeting the tyrosine kinase receptor HER2 have significantly improved survival of HER2+ cancer patients. However, both de novo and acquired resistance remain a challenge, particularly in the brain metastatic setting. Here we report that, unlike other HER tyrosine kinase receptors, HER2 possesses a binding motif in its cytosolic juxtamembrane region that allows interaction with members of the ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) family. Under physiological conditions, this interaction controls the localization of HER2 in ERM-enriched domains and stabilizes HER2 in a catalytically repressed state...

Arrest of WNT/β-catenin signaling enables the transition from pluripotent to differentiated germ cells in mouse ovaries

Mitochondrial Metabolism in Carcinogenesis and Cancer Therapy

Carcinogenesis is a multi-step process that refers to transformation of a normal cell into a tumoral neoplastic cell. The mechanisms that promote tumor initiation, promotion and progression are varied, complex and remain to be understood. Studies have highlighted the involvement of oncogenic mutations, genomic instability and epigenetic alterations as well as metabolic reprogramming, in different processes of oncogenesis...