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Nature Immunology

Long-term culture-expanded alveolar macrophages restore their full epigenetic identity after transfer in vivo

Alveolar macrophages (AMs) are lung tissue-resident macrophages that can be expanded in culture, but it is unknown to what extent culture affects their in vivo identity. Here we show that mouse long-term ex vivo expanded AMs (exAMs) maintained a core AM gene expression program, but showed culture adaptations related to adhesion, metabolism and proliferation. Upon transplantation into the lung, exAMs reacquired full transcriptional and epigenetic AM identity, even after several months in culture and could self-maintain long-term in the alveolar niche.

Frontiers in Immunology

The Effect of Hypoxia and Hypoxia-Associated Pathways in the Regulation of Antitumor Response: Friends or Foes?

Hypoxia is an environmental stressor that is instigated by low oxygen availability. It fuels the progression of solid tumors by driving tumor plasticity, heterogeneity, stemness and genomic instability. Hypoxia metabolically reprograms the tumor microenvironment (TME), adding insult to injury to the acidic, nutrient deprived and poorly vascularized conditions that act to dampen immune cell function. Through its impact on key cancer hallmarks and by creating a physical barrier conducive to tumor survival, hypoxia modulates tumor cell escape from the mounted immune response.

Oncoimmunology

Immune sunrise: from the immunome to the cancer immune landscape

The complex dynamics of the tumor-immune interaction during tumor progression have been characterized by integrating genomic and proteomic experiments. The Immunome, a reference compendium of markers for the majority of immune cell subpopulations was used to describe the immune landscape in cancer. The immune contexture is at the cornerstone in the success of cancer immunotherapies.

Bone research

Theobroma cacao improves bone growth by modulating defective ciliogenesis in a mouse model of achondroplasia

A gain-of-function mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 gene (FGFR3) results in achondroplasia (ACH), the most frequent form of dwarfism. Constitutive activation of FGFR3 impairs bone formation and elongation and many signal transduction pathways. Identification of new and relevant compounds targeting the FGFR3 signaling pathway is of broad importance for the treatment of ACH, and natural plant compounds are prime drug candidate sources. Here, we found that the phenolic compound (-)-epicatechin, isolated from Theobroma cacao, effectively inhibited FGFR3's downstream signaling pathways...

Cerebral cortex

Frontal Cortical Functional Connectivity Is Impacted by Anaesthesia in Macaques

A critical aspect of neuroscience is to establish whether and how brain networks evolved across primates. To date, most comparative studies have used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) in anaesthetized nonhuman primates and in awake humans. However, anaesthesia strongly affects rs-fMRI signals. The present study investigated the impact of the awareness state (anaesthesia vs. awake) within the same group of macaque monkeys on the rs-fMRI functional connectivity organization of a well-characterized network in the human brain, the cingulo-frontal lateral network...

Nucleic Acids Res.

Complex Portal 2022: new curation frontiers

The Complex Portal (www.ebi.ac.uk/complexportal) is a manually curated, encyclopaedic database of macromolecular complexes with known function from a range of model organisms. It summarizes complex composition, topology and function along with links to a large range of domain-specific resources (i.e. wwPDB, EMDB and Reactome). Since the last update in 2019, we have produced a first draft complexome for Escherichia coli, maintained and updated that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, added over 40 coronavirus complexes and increased the human complexome to over 1100 complexes that include approximately 200 complexes that act as targets for viral proteins or are part of the immune system.