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JCI Insight

TET2 regulates immune tolerance in chronically activated mast cells

Mutation of the TET2 DNA-hydroxymethylase has been associated with a number of immune pathologies. The disparity in phenotype and clinical presentation among these pathologies leads to questions regarding the role of TET2 mutation in promoting disease evolution in different immune cell types. Here we show that, in primary mast cells, Tet2 expression is induced in response to chronic and acute activation signals...

Clocks & Sleep

Direct Effects of Light on Sleep under Ultradian Light-Dark Cycles Depend on Circadian Time and Pulses Duration

Ultradian light-dark cycles in rodents are a precious tool to study the direct effects of repeated light exposures on sleep, in order to better understand the underlying mechanisms. This study aims to precisely evaluate the effects of light and dark exposures, according to circadian time, on sleep and waking distribution and quality, and to determine if these effects depend on the duration of light and dark pulses...

EMBO molecular medicine

CD38-NADase is a new major contributor to Duchenne muscular dystrophic phenotype

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by progressive muscle degeneration. Two important deleterious features are a Ca2+ dysregulation linked to Ca2+ influxes associated with ryanodine receptor hyperactivation, and a muscular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ ) deficit. Here, we identified that deletion in mdx mice of CD38, a NAD+ glycohydrolase-producing modulators of Ca2+ signaling, led to a fully restored heart function and structure, with skeletal muscle performance improvements, associated with a reduction in inflammation and senescence markers.

Nature Immunology

Long-term culture-expanded alveolar macrophages restore their full epigenetic identity after transfer in vivo

Alveolar macrophages (AMs) are lung tissue-resident macrophages that can be expanded in culture, but it is unknown to what extent culture affects their in vivo identity. Here we show that mouse long-term ex vivo expanded AMs (exAMs) maintained a core AM gene expression program, but showed culture adaptations related to adhesion, metabolism and proliferation. Upon transplantation into the lung, exAMs reacquired full transcriptional and epigenetic AM identity, even after several months in culture and could self-maintain long-term in the alveolar niche.

Frontiers in Immunology

The Effect of Hypoxia and Hypoxia-Associated Pathways in the Regulation of Antitumor Response: Friends or Foes?

Hypoxia is an environmental stressor that is instigated by low oxygen availability. It fuels the progression of solid tumors by driving tumor plasticity, heterogeneity, stemness and genomic instability. Hypoxia metabolically reprograms the tumor microenvironment (TME), adding insult to injury to the acidic, nutrient deprived and poorly vascularized conditions that act to dampen immune cell function. Through its impact on key cancer hallmarks and by creating a physical barrier conducive to tumor survival, hypoxia modulates tumor cell escape from the mounted immune response.

Oncoimmunology

Immune sunrise: from the immunome to the cancer immune landscape

The complex dynamics of the tumor-immune interaction during tumor progression have been characterized by integrating genomic and proteomic experiments. The Immunome, a reference compendium of markers for the majority of immune cell subpopulations was used to describe the immune landscape in cancer. The immune contexture is at the cornerstone in the success of cancer immunotherapies.