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Neural circuit repair by low-intensity magnetic stimulation requires cellular magnetoreceptors and specific stimulation patterns

Although electromagnetic brain stimulation is a promising treatment in neurology and psychiatry, clinical outcomes are variable, and underlying mechanisms are ill-defined, which impedes the development of new effective stimulation protocols. Here, we show, in vivo and ex vivo, that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation at low-intensity (LI-rTMS) induces axon outgrowth and synaptogenesis to repair a neural circuit. This repair depends on stimulation pattern, with complex biomimetic patterns being particularly effective, and the presence of cryptochrome, a putative magnetoreceptor...

Different cardiovascular and pulmonary phenotypes for single- and double-knock-out mice deficient in BMP9 and BMP10

BMP9 and BMP10 mutations were recently identified in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but their specific roles in the pathogenesis of the disease are still unclear. We aimed to study the roles of BMP9 and BMP10 in cardiovascular homeostasis and pulmonary hypertension using transgenic mouse models deficient in Bmp9 and/or Bmp10.

GlcNAc is a mast-cell chromatin-remodeling oncometabolite that promotes systemic mastocytosis aggressiveness

Systemic mastocytosis (SM) is a KIT-driven hematopoietic neoplasm characterized by the excessive accumulation of neoplastic mast cells (MCs) in various organs and, mainly, the bone marrow (BM). Multiple genetic and epigenetic mechanisms contribute to the onset and severity of SM. However, little is known to date about the metabolic underpinnings underlying SM aggressiveness, which has thus far impeded the development of strategies to leverage metabolic dependencies when existing KIT-targeted treatments fail. Here, we show that plasma metabolomic profiles were able to discriminate indolent from advanced forms of the disease...

Phosphatase inhibition by LB-100 enhances BMN-111 stimulation of bone growth

Activating mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) and inactivating mutations in the natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (NPR2) guanylyl cyclase both result in decreased production of cyclic GMP in chondrocytes and severe short stature, causing achondroplasia (ACH) and acromesomelic dysplasia, type Maroteaux, respectively. Previously, we showed that an NPR2 agonist BMN-111 (vosoritide) increases bone growth in mice mimicking ACH (Fgfr3Y367C/+). Here, because FGFR3 signaling decreases NPR2 activity by dephosphorylating the NPR2 protein, we tested whether a phosphatase inhibitor (LB-100) could enhance BMN-111-stimulated bone growth in ACH...

Microtubule-Associated Protein ATIP3, an Emerging Target for Personalized Medicine in Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is the leading cause of death by malignancy among women worldwide. Clinical data and molecular characteristics of breast tumors are essential to guide clinician's therapeutic decisions. In the new era of precision medicine, that aims at personalizing the treatment for each patient, there is urgent need to identify robust companion biomarkers for new targeted therapies. This review focuses on ATIP3, a potent anti-cancer protein encoded by candidate tumor suppressor gene MTUS1, whose expression levels are markedly down-regulated in breast cancer. ATIP3 is a microtubule-associated protein identified both as a prognostic biomarker of patient survival and a predictive biomarker of breast tumors response to taxane-based chemotherapy. We present here recent studies pointing out ATIP3 as an emerging anti-cancer protein and a potential companion biomarker to be combined with future personalized therapy against ATIP3-deficient breast cancer.

Tumor spread or siege immunity: dissemination to distant metastasis or not

Metastasis is the leading cause of cancer mortality. We have investigated the tumor microenvironment at all metastatic cascade steps (early-metastasic dissemination, synchronous metastasis, metachronous metastasis) to delineate the impact of tumor and immune parameters to this process. Tumors with and without signs of early metastasis invasion (venous-emboli, lymphatic-invasion, perineural-invasion, collectively, VELIPI) had similar levels of inflammatory and immunosuppressive molecules. Cancer mutations, gene expression levels or chromosomal instability did not significantly differ in primary tumors from patients with or without metastasis...